University of Colorado, Denver and Anschutz scored a “D-” on the University Global Health Impact Guide. Learn why and see how other schools compare.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

University of Colorado, Denver and Anschutz

Total

Grand Total Score: 24.89 Grand Total Grade: D-

Innovation

Total Score: 14 (out of 35)
Grade: C-

Global Health Research

?

Why does this matter?

NIH’s Fogarty International Center provides grants for global health-focused research, education and training programs. For Gates this included global health grants listed under global development or global policy, advocacy, and country programs as well as the global health program. Receipt of these grants is a strong indicator of a university's commitment in these areas.

Where does the data come from?

Public Datasets were collected from the NIH RePorter database. We searched by university for total funding received in FY 2014 to 2016 from the NIH Fogarty International Center (FIC) and from Gates specifically for global health. For Gates this included global health grants listed under global development or global policy, advocacy, and country programs as well as the global health program. Data was aggregated by university. The use of the total NIH plus Gates funding as the denominator in this calculation served to normalize the data for this metric so that universities with large research budgets were not unfairly advantaged in this evaluation.

How can universities improve?

Seek increased Fogarty International Center or Gates Foundation funding by developing innovative and effective global health initiatives.

Q

What percentage of the university’s total funding received is dedicated to global health research, training and collaborations?

A
0%
0 (out of 5)

Neglected Disease Research

?

Why does this matter?

As nonprofit, social-good institutions conducting publicly-funded research, universities can and should live up to their social missions by leading research into diseases that primarily affect the world's poor and that are neglected by the current for-profit biomedical research model.

Where does the data come from?

For each institution, we calculated an index score based on total grant funding received for research on neglected diseases in FY 2014-2016 as reported in G-FINDER reports for this year (numerator), and the total combined funding reported by the NIH and Gates Foundation for this year (denominator). The G-FINDER report is considered the most comprehensive and authoritative database of neglected disease grants, and includes funding for NDs from >100 sources, including government, industry, and philanthropic foundations. The total NIH plus Gates funding was used as the denominator in this calculation to create a normalized standard that prevents larger institutions from having exaggeratedly high levels of funding and smaller institutions from having exaggeratedly low levels of funding.

How can universities improve?

Universities should strive to direct at least 10% of health research resources towards neglected diseases. More grants aren’t the only way; universities can also recruit more faculty and students who specialize in these diseases, ensure they receive adequate training and support, and urge funders to increase overall investment in this area.

Q

What percentage of the university's total medical research funding is devoted to projects focused on neglected diseases?

A
1.01-1.50%
4.5 (out of 7.5)

Publications on Global Health

?

Why does this matter?

On average, approximately 2% of total medical PubMed publications at the to 59 universities have a global health focus, and three-quarters of those have a neglected disease focus.

Where does the data come from?

For each institution, the total number of citations specific to global health and/or affiliated with a university’s department of global health was tabulated as reported through PubMed. A comprehensive search query (see methodology for full details) was created to acquire a broad perspective on scientific and non-scientific research pertaining to global health within a university from the period between January, 2010 and August 2014. The number of publications associated with each university was delineated using PubMed’s filter option, and an aggregate number of global health research publications was obtained for each university. To normalize across universities, this number was divided by a total number of publications for each institution within this same time period.

How can universities improve?

The focus of university publications is an important indicator of the university’s key research interests. 2% shows a low level of output in global health research and we can consequently assume a low level of actual research taking place through the university community as compared with other areas of interest. Universities can improve by increasing the number of researchers who work in the area of global health, on neglected diseases and also in other areas aside from neglected diseases

Q

What percentage of the university's total medical PubMed publications are focused on global health?

A
1-10%
1 (out of 5)

Publications on Neglected Health Needs

?

Why does this matter?

The focus of university publications is an important indicator of the university’s key research interests. A lesser number points to a low level of output in neglected disease research at the university, which consequently indicates that a low level of actual global health research is taking place within that university community when compared with other areas of interest at the institution.

Where does the data come from?

For each institution, the total number of citations specific to neglected diseases was tabulated as reported through PubMed. A comprehensive search query was created to encompass these diseases and their associated areas of research from the period between January, 2014 and August 2016. The number of publications associated with each university was delineated through PubMed’s filter option, and an aggregate number of neglected disease specific research publications was obtained for each university. To normalize across universities, this number was divided by a total number of publications for each institution within this same time period. For a complete list of included search terms, please see this list of included diseases: https://tinyurl.com/1owfv30d

How can universities improve?

Universities can improve by increasing the number of researchers who work in the area of neglected health needs.

Q

What total percentage of the university’s total medical PubMed publications are focused on neglected diseases; diseases with recorded outbreaks, epidemics, or pandemics; and/or neglected aspects of HIV, TB, malaria, or AMR in low and lower-middle income countries?

A
1-10%
1 (out of 5)

Dedicated Research Centers

?

Why does this matter?

Having a major lab, center or other facility focused specifically on neglected disease research demonstrates a strong university commitment to closing the research gap for these diseases.

Where does the data come from?

Multiple research administrators at each institution were systematically contacted requesting response to an online survey instrument. For institutions that failed to respond to our requests, multiple investigators performed a manual web search with a standardized, comprehensive search query.

How can universities improve?

Establish a major center or initiative focused specifically on researching neglected diseases and neglected global health needs.

Q

Does the university have a research center or institute dedicated specifically to neglected diseases and or HIV/AIDS, TB, Malaria, or AMR?

A
The university has more than one HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, or AMR Center OR one Neglected Diseases Center | Details: AIDS Clinicals Trials Unit (http://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/medicalschool/programs/caactu/Pages/ACTU.aspx) AND Center for Global Health w/ Malaria research (https://news.cuanschutz.edu/news-stories/center-for-global-health-receives-gates-foundation-grant-for-groundbreaking-research)
7.5 (out of 12.5)

Access

Total Score: 3 (out of 47)
Grade: F

Licensing Commitments

?

Why does this matter?

Global access to medicines is crucial as ⅓ of all people in the developing world don’t have affordable access to medicines that could save their lives. As a result, it is imperative for global powers like the U.S. prides itself on being, to increase affordability and access to medications not only for the U.S. but also for lower and middle income countries

Where does the data come from?

Part A: Multiple investigators, working independently and in parallel, reviewed publicly available information. First, investigators obtained information from lists of university signatories to collective global access statements such as the Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable Dissemination of Medical Technologies or the Stanford Nine Points.

Next, investigators used a standardized online survey instrument to systematically collect data specific to each university.

Part B: Multiple investigators using a standardized online survey instrument in order to review the website of each university's technology transfer office (TTO).

How can universities improve?

Adopt global access licensing principles like engaging in non-exclusive licensing that prioritizes generic production of medicines in order to provide access to essential medicines to lower- and middle-income countries.

Q

Does the university license its medical discoveries in ways that promote global health equity?

Q

Has the university officially and publicly committed to licensing its medical discoveries in ways that promote access and affordability in lower and middle income countries?

A
The university has publicly committed to the general principle of global access licensing, but has not endorsed or disclosed specific strategies for promoting access through licensing | Details: The University has signed the Stanford Nine Points
2 (out of 5)
Q

Does the website of the university's technology transfer office (TTO) make an effort to disclose, explain and promote access licensing commitments and practices?

A
The website makes no reference to promoting global access through socially responsible licensing
0 (out of 5)

Open Access Publications

?

Why does this matter?

Open access publication enables equal sharing of scholarly knowledge across geographical and financial barriers. If everyone has access to the latest biomedical findings, there is increased opportunity for individuals to innovate, further they can be empowered to make important health care decisions for themselves and their loved ones based on access to this information.

Where does the data come from?

To determine the total medical sciences publications output for a given university in the time period January 2014 - August 2016, a search of the PubMed database was performed using search terms encompassing all the institutes conducting biomedical research affiliated with the university (including hospitals and independent research institutes, as well as the main campus).

To estimate the total medical sciences output published with open access provisions from the period between January 2014 and August 2016, a search of PubMedCentral (a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine) was performed as above.

The number of open-access publications for each university was then divided by the number of total publications to determine a percentage for each institution.

How can universities improve?

Increase the number of open access publications.

Q

What percentage of the university's total medical sciences publication output is published in open-access publications?

A
11-30%
1 (out of 2.5)

Non-Exclusive Licensing

?

Why does this matter?

Non-exclusive licensing is crucial to deviating from the profit driven economy towards one that centers on people. Non-exclusive licensing allows for low- and middle-income countries to be a part of the conversation and have access to life-saving medications that were developed in the U.S.

Where does the data come from?

An online survey instrument was emailed to technology transfer offices (TTOs) at all institutions under study. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via email.

How can universities improve?

Engage in non-exclusive licensing practices, either by converting existing exclusive licenses into non-exclusive ones through or by committing to non-exclusive licenses in future dealings.

Q

In the past year, what percentage of the university's health technology licenses was non-exclusive?

A
No response provided
0 (out of 5)

Patents

?

Why does this matter?

When a medical research innovation is patented in a certain country, no one there is allowed to develop products from it without a license from the patent holder. Patents in low- and middle-countries may block locally-produced, affordable versions of new medicines.

Where does the data come from?

An online survey instrument was emailed to technology transfer offices (TTOs) at all institutions under study. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via email.

How can universities improve?

Refrain from seeking patents or “file and abandon” patents in low- and middle-income countries, leaving generic drug makers there free to produce low-cost versions of medicines developed from the university's research.

Q

In the past year, for what percentage of all health technologies did the university seek patents in for in...

Q

Upper-middle-income countries?

A
No response provided
0 (out of 5)
Q

Low- and lower-middle-income countries ?

A
No response provided
0 (out of 5)

Access Provisions in Exclusive Licensing

?

Why does this matter?

Drug companies often pay universities for an “exclusive license” that gives them monopoly rights over a university medical innovation. This can lead to very expensive end products - but universities can include global access licensing provisions to make the resulting medicines affordable in low- and middle-income countries.

Where does the data come from?

An online survey instrument was emailed to technology transfer offices (TTOs) at all institutions under study. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via email.

How can universities improve?

Include global access provisions in 100% of exclusive licenses for university technologies.

Q

In the past year, what percentage of the university’s exclusive licenses of health technologies from the TTO included provisions to promote access to those technologies in...

Q

Low- and lower-middle-income countries (as defined by the World Bank)?

A
No response provided
0 (out of 5)
Q

Upper-middle-income countries (as defined by the World Bank)?

A
No response provided
0 (out of 5)
Q

High-income countries (as defined by the World Bank)?

A
No response provided
0 (out of 2.5)

Best Practice Sharing

?

Why does this matter?

Sharing licensing practices that improve access to life-saving medications serves as a way for universities to be leaders and proponents of global health equity. Furthermore, it allows for other rival universities and research institutions to follow in their example and principles, thereby leading to an overall benefit, not just for the institution, but also for the global public.

Where does the data come from?

An online survey instrument was emailed to technology transfer offices (TTOs) at all institutions under study. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via email.

How can universities improve?

Publish sample licensing agreements and share your best practices. Publish articles on the importance of global access licensing practices. Formally presented on access licensing practices and discuss access licensing practices with other administrators and universities.

Q

Has the university shared its best practices for promoting access to medicines through licensing? Check all that apply:
❏ Contributed sample clauses to the AUTM Global Health Toolkit
❏ Published an article on access licensing practices
❏ Formally presented on access licensing practices at an academic or professional event
❏ Informally shared or discussed access licensing practices with administrators at other universities
❏ Other: Please explain

A
No response provided
0 (out of 5)

Contributions to International IP Pools

?

Why does this matter?

Non-exclusive licenses and the royalty-free sharing of biomedical intellectual property (IP) are keys to increasing access to life saving medications for low- and middle-income countries. Licensing intellectual property in this manner promotes the accessibility and affordability of medications which in turn values access over profits and benefits the overall public. Making biomedical IP and know-how on neglected health needs available to the international medical community accelerates research into global health and reduces research and development costs.

Where does the data come from?

An online survey instrument was emailed to technology transfer offices (TTOs) at all institutions under study. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via email.

How can universities improve?

Submit a patent related to neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, TB, Hepatitis C, malaria, or other essential medicine to the MPP or WIPO Re:Search.

Q

Has the university recently submitted a medical patent(s) to the Medicines Patents Pool (MPP) or World Intellectual Property Organziation's (WIPO) Re:Search?

A
No response provided
0 (out of 2)

Empowerment

Total Score: 25.25 (out of 37.5)
Grade: B+

Global Health Programs

?

Why does this matter?

Emerging leaders in medicine, law and related fields must have the opportunity to learn about the pressing challenges in global health, neglected disease research and access to medicines.

Where does the data come from?

Multiple investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a review of university global health centers/institutes, departments, and programs using standardized web search protocol to identify qualifying institutions and determined whether or not they should earn a point for accessibility.

How can universities improve?

Offer dedicated global health centers, programs, majors and/or study tracks in medical, law and public health schools.

Q

Does the university offer its students access to global health engagement and/or education?

Q

As indicated by the existence of a university center/institute, department, and/or non-degree program in global health.

A
A global health center/institute AND at least one global health initiative or non-degree program
8 (out of 10)
Q

As indicated by the existence of a university graduate degree, major/concentration, focus/specialization, certificate, or undergraduate degree in global health.

A
At least one global health graduate degree
10 (out of 10)

Education Opportunities on Global Access Principles

?

Why does this matter?

Effective global health programs focus not only on challenges in low and middle countries, but educate students about universities' role in promoting access to medicines through global access licensing.

Where does the data come from?

Initial data was collected through a survey questionnaire that was emailed to appropriate deans or other administrators within the schools of medicine, public health, and/or law. Following the initial email, we made two additional email attempts to follow up with universities that do not respond. After this initial round of data collection, 2 to 3 investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a web search of university course catalogues using a standardized online survey instrument, in order to verify the self-reported university responses, as well as to identify relevant course offerings at non-responding institutions.

How can universities improve?

Provide courses on the role of unviersity patenting, licensing and technology transfer in global health and how these policies impact global pricing and accessibility of medical innovations.

Q

Does the university’s (a) medical school/residency program, (b) public health school, and/or (c) law school offer graduate courses that address the policy and legal context of biomedical R&D, and more specifically the impact of intellectual property policies, on research priorities and global access to medical innovations?

A
More than 5 courses
2 (out of 5)

Education Opportunities on Neglected Diseases

?

Why does this matter?

One of the most straightforward ways to close the gap in neglected disease research is by educating and empowering young doctors and researchers to focus in this area.

Where does the data come from?

Initial data was collected through a survey questionnaire that was emailed to appropriate deans or other administrators within the schools of medicine, public health, and/or law. Following the initial email, we made two additional email attempts to follow up with universities that do not respond. After this initial round of data collection, 2 to 3 investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a web search of university course catalogues using a standardized online survey instrument, in order to verify the self-reported university responses, as well as to identify relevant course offerings at non-responding institutions.

How can universities improve?

Provide courses that specifically educate students about the burden of neglected diseases including neglected aspects of HIV TB and Malaria of and the need for increased research.

Q

Does the university’s (a) undergraduate program, (b) medical school/residency program, (c) public health school, and/or (d) law school offer graduate courses that address the prevalence of and/or lack of research on neglected diseases, including neglected aspects of HIV, TB, AMR, and/or malaria?

A
More than 5 courses
2 (out of 5)

Conferences and Events

?

Why does this matter?

Sponsorship of events focused specifically on universities' role in neglected areas of global health research and the impact of intellectual property on access to medicines is another important way to foster crucial student understanding and interest in this area.

Where does the data come from?

2 to 3 investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a review of university-hosted events using a standardized web search protocol to identify events related to topic A and/or B. To ensure comparability of included events by multiple investigators, investigators only included events that met the following criteria:
✔ Must be partially or fully funded by the university/school/faculty or hosted on the facility of the school/faculty
✔ Must discuss neglected diseases, access to medicines, and/or IP
✔ Must discuss perspectives from low- and/or middle-income countries
✔ Must have more than 30 people in attendance

How can universities improve?

Host or sponsor conferences, symposia and other campus events that focus specifically on neglected disease research and licensing that ensures equitable access to medicines for all

Q

Has the university hosted a major conference, symposium or campus-wide event from 2014-2016 on the following topics:

(A) The policy and legal context of biomedical R&D, specifically the impact of intellectual property rights on research priorities and global access to medical innovations

(B) Neglected diseases, including neglected aspects of HIV, TB, AMR, malaria, and/or Zika and health needs of low- and middle-income countries

A
Yes - has hosted two events both on (A) or both on (B)
2 (out of 5)

Educational Opportunities Abroad

?

Why does this matter?

It is important that universities provide students the opportunity to witness the reality of living and working and researching in resource poor or alternate settings so as to increase their understanding and awareness of real world problems outside the comfort and ample resources of their own schools. These experiences can often shape the worldview of students.

Where does the data come from?

2 to 3 investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a review of university global health opportunities abroad using a standardized web search protocol to identify opportunities.

How can universities improve?

By increasing the number of opportunities for students to study work or complete research is areas of global health.

Q

Does the university offer any of its students accessible opportunities to study, work, or complete research abroad in global health?

A
Scholarship(s) AND Global health practicum(s) and/or partnership(s) abroad AND Engagement with global health clinic(s) abroad
1.25 (out of 2.5)

Transparency

Total Score: 30 (out of 91.5)
Grade: D

Disclosure of Clinical Trial Funding

?

Why does this matter?

Disclosing public funds received for clinical trials is important because the funding comes from taxpayer dollars and as such the public is entitled to know where the money is allocated. Additionally, it allows the public to track whether or not the university licenses the resulting intellectual property for profit or for access. Legislations and control mechanisms are needed to hold research institutions/universities and companies accountable for accessibility and affordability of the produced drug.

Where does the data come from?

Initial data was collected through a survey questionnaire that was emailed to appropriate deans or other administrators within the schools of medicine, public health, and/or law, and the office of technology transfer. Following the initial email, we made two additional email attempts to follow up with universities that do not respond. After this initial round of data collection, 2 to 3 investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a web search of university course catalogues using a standardized online survey instrument, in order to verify the self-reported university responses, and complete a supplementary standardized review of university’s website (including the TTO, Office for Clinical Research, and University Departments and medical centers) to search for disclosure of public funds for clinical trials.

How can universities improve?

Public and philanthropic funding totals should be publicly accessible online. Sites like ClinicalTrials.gov, NIH Projector Reporter, and other registries and tools can be used to deliver this information to the public. Universities can also maintain institutional websites that list funding sources for individual grants.

Q

Does the university disclose the amount of public funding received for clinical trials? Check all that apply:
❏ Discloses funding to public registries
❏ Disclosures sources of private funding
❏ Disclosure of all public and philanthropic funding
❏ Maintains a public database of funding sources for individual grants
❏ Responds to public records requests disclosing information on corporate sponsored research
❏ Reports funds that are received through a foundation housed in the academic institution and/or headed by a principal investigator at the university

A
2 sharing options checked
4.5 (out of 7.5)

Publication of Clinical Trial Data

?

Why does this matter?

Clinical trials are the most expensive part of the research and development of a drug. Being transparent, therefore, is crucial to a university’s responsibility as it is important for the public to see where and what their funds have contributed to, both the successes and failures. Clinical trial data publication is also important for sharing research findings with the wider scientific community and for ensuring biomedical research using human subjects is conducted in a way that is ethically and methodologically sound.

Where does the data come from?

For each institution, the percentage of trials completed without published results was determined by two or more independent investigators using a standardized search query of the reported clinical trial registry on ClinicalTrials.gov and TrialsTracker.

An online survey instrument was also emailed to the university’s TTO, faculty, and administrators. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via email.

How can universities improve?

In order to increase transparency, clinical trial research data should be published accordingly and in a timely manner on clinical trial registries and other related websites.

Q

What percent of all clinical trial data was published between...?

Q

2006-2015 - Based on online sources

A
41-60%
7.5 (out of 12.5)
Q

2006-2015 - Based on university self-reported data

A
No response provided
0 (out of 12.5)
Q

2014-2015 - Based on online sources

A
41-60%
7.5 (out of 12.5)
Q

2014-2015 - Based on university self-reported data

A
No response provided
0 (out of 12.5)

Policies Mandating the Publication of Clinical Trial Results

?

Why does this matter?

The timely disclosure of results helps to improve public health outcomes by reducing waste in research, increasing efficiency in the use of resources, limiting reporting bias and contributing to enhanced decision-making. Mandating researchers publish all the results of clinical trials is crucial in ensuring that data obtained from clinical trials is made public and accessible in the future. It can also prevent private companies from blocking the publication of “negative” or “undesired” results, as well as the accidental duplication of research.

Where does the data come from?

An online survey instrument was emailed to technology transfer offices (TTOs), faculty, and administrators at all institutions under study. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via email.

How can universities improve?

Adopt, promote and enforce policies that mandate researchers publish all clinical trial results in registries. Facilitate researchers’ access to these registries. Develop an internal review process to prevent duplication of failed research.

Q

Does your university have policies that mandate that all university researchers publish all results of all clinical trials?

A
No response provided
0 (out of 3)

Acknowledgements of the Importance of Clinical Trial Transparency

?

Why does this matter?

Public acknowledgement is a method of taking accountability. If universities are not willing to publicly commit to recognized standards in clinical trials transparency, it indicates that they may be prioritizing other outcomes over public health.

Where does the data come from?

Publicly available data on signatories was collected directly from the appropriate reputable U.S. government databases and foundation websites. An online survey instrument was also emailed to technology transfer offices (TTOs), faculty, and administrators at all institutions under study. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via email.

How can universities improve?

Sign or publicly support the WHO Joint statement on public disclosure of clinical trial results. Publish an online statement in support of clinical trial transparency, your commitment to ensuring researchers report all clinical trial results, and your endorsement of research that encourages these practices.

Q

Has the university publicly acknowledged the need to be transparent in clinical trial results by:
❏ Signing/endorsing the World Health Organization's Joint statement on public disclosure of clinical trial results
❏ Endorsing the Institute of Medicine’s Sharing Clinical Trial Data: Maximizing Benefits, Minimizing Risk⁠ Report
❏ Endorsing UAEM's global campaign on University Norms on Transparency
❏ Publishing an statement in support of clinical trial data transparency and the need to publish all clinical trial results on their Univerisity website

A
Supports clinical trial data transparency and publishes clinical trial results online. Link : http://www.ucdenver.edu/research/ORC/CRSC/Pages/clinicaltrials.aspx
2 (out of 8)

Prospective Registration of Clinical Trials

?

Why does this matter?

It is crucial for a university to require their researchers to register all clinical trials prior to subject enrollment as stated in ClinicalTrials.gov. This is important for safety reasons (clinical trials involve the use of human subjects), to promote transparency in funding, and to ensure biomedical research is conducted in a way that is ethically and methodologically sound.

Where does the data come from?

Initial data is collected directly from universities using a standardized questionnaire. Additionally, this data is both verified and supplemented by a review of the data from a standardized web search performed by multiple investigators.

How can universities improve?

Adopt and enforce policies that require researchers to remain complicit to the rules set forth by the NIH and ClinicalTrials.gov when embarking on a new research project.

Q

Do you recommend or require your researchers to prospectively register all clinical trials with an appropriate registry before any subject is enrolled?

(a) If no, do you ensure all trials are registered before data is submitted to an academic journal for publication?

(b) If yes, in addition to trials being prospectively registered, do you require protocols and planned outcomes for your university trials public before the trial begins?
↳ If no, do you provide credit to investigators who choose to share protocols for their planned, ongoing, or completed trials?

A
Yes, b) No, No
0 (out of 2)

Privately Commissioned Research

?

Why does this matter?

Private funds are another source of investment for the research and development of a drug. Despite that, it is important for the university to not engage in exclusive licenses with the developed product in order to increase access to that medicine for the public. Medicines are for people, not for profit, after all!

Where does the data come from?

Data was collected through a standardized survey questionnaire that was emailed to appropriate administrators. If ‘yes’ was selected as answer to Part A, a text box appeared asking the institution to provide web links or sample language or redacted language. Any links were assessed by multiple investigators to verify the self-reported university responses.

How can universities improve?

Read contacts with private entities carefully and limit clauses that prevent data publication and transparency.

Q

Do you engage in commissioned research from private companies?
↳ If yes, do these companies have the ability to insert clauses affecting or prevent data publication?

A
Yes, No
1 (out of 1)

Sufficiency of Public Data

?

Why does this matter?

As institutions that receive large sums of public funding, conduct medical research on living subjects, hold immense amounts of intellectual and medical power, and are tasked with educating the next generation of leaders, universities have a responsibility to make information on how they conduct research publicly available.

Where does the data come from?

Internal investigators re-examined information collected from internal data collection and universities' responses to the standardized survey.

How can universities improve?

Sufficient data should have been found online - it is the responsibility of university administrators and researchers to publish their data accordingly.

Q

For questions relying on public data, was sufficient information available online?

Q

For Access section questions

A
Data found for more than half of all questions
1.5 (out of 2)
Q

For Innovation section questions

A
Data found for all questions
2 (out of 2)
Q

For Empowerment section questions

A
Data found for all questions
2 (out of 2)
Q

For Transparency section questions

A
Data found for all questions
2 (out of 2)

Response Discrepancy

?

Why does this matter?

Discrepancy in publicly sourced vs. university self-reported data indicates that the university is not being completely transparent. Perhaps the university does not update its website regularly with new information and statistics and only makes this information available to those who specifically ask. Or, perhaps the university overestimates their contribution in a specific area, as indicated by the data listed on public registries. Regardless of the reason, this discrepancy indicates that the public is not receiving the full picture.

Note: There were no questions in the university self-reported Access survey that overlapped with UAEM’s internal data collection. COVID-19 Response surveys were not assessed in this section.

Where does the data come from?

Internal investigators re-examined information collected from internal data collection and universities' responses to the standardized survey and evaluated these findings for discrepancies.

How can universities improve?

Submit the forms! The easiest thing that universities can do to improve in this area is to engage with UAEM and respond to our requests to self-report data. All universities were contacted multiple times and given over a month to respond. Universities who did not submit self-reports are indicating to the public that they do not prioritize transparency or value UAEM’s global health advocacy work.

Q

For questions which used both universities' responses to the standardized survey and information collected using publicly available data, how much discrepancy existed between these two data sources?

A
University did not submit forms

COVID-19

Total Score: 0 (out of 11)
Grade: F

COVID-19 Biomedical Technology Commitments

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Why does this matter?

As publicly funded research institutions, universities should be doing all they can to ensure global access to their COVID-19 developments. COVID-19 is a world-wide pandemic ensuring equitable global access to treatment and vaccination is the only way to end the disease.

Much of COVID-19 research has been publicly funded and as such, the results generated from these universities should be accessible and available to the public. Furthermore TTO’s are huge proponents of the commercialization of academic knowledge, with the goal of creating both societal and economic benefit. Publicly committing to open science and access frameworks would only bolster their standing as a university.

Where does the data come from?

Information of signatories or commitments of IP are publicly available and were collected and confirmed by at least two independent investigators. Universities were provided with four weeks of time, upon private release of each university’s current standing in the report, to identify and communicate any additional mechanisms implemented aimed at expanding access to COVID-19 related health technologies.

How can universities improve?

Sign the pledges! Specifically OCP and C-TAP.

OCP and C-TAP are the gold standards of open-access COVID-19 commitments. AUTM’s COVID-19 licensing guidelines and the Harvard/MIT/Stanford COVID-19 Technology Access Framework are not as comprehensive as OCP or C-TAP because they are time limited agreements that use vague language without providing a draft licensing agreement. Only OCP and C-TAP ensure complete unrestricted free global access to COVID-19 biomedical developments.

Q

Has the university publicly committed to any open science frameworks that increase access to COVID-19 related health technologies? Options include:
AUTM's COVID-19 Licensing Guidelines
❏ The COVID-19 Technology Access Framework
❏ The World Health Organization’s COVID-19 Technology Access Pool
❏ The Open Covid Pledge
❏ Other: Please elaborate.

A
This institution has not signed any of the identified frameworks.
0 (out of 11)